5. COMPREHENSIONS

COMPREHENSION OF A PASSAGE
QUESTION NO. 21
(i) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     One day a wolf felt very hungry. He wandered here and there in search of food but he could not find anything to eat. At last he saw a flock of sheep grazing in a pasture. He wanted to eat one but they were guarded by a hound. The shepherd's son was also tending the flock vigilantly. The wolf found himself helpless. At last he hit upon a plan. He hid himself in the skin of a sheep and safely went into the flock. The hound could not find out the wolf in disguise. He killed a sheep and ate it without being caught. In this way he ate up many sheep and their number began to fall every day. The shepherd was greatly worried but could not find out the thief.
QUESTIONS
1. Why did the wolf wander about? 
2. Did he find anything to eat? 
3. Why was the wolf helpless? 
4. How did he get into the flock? 
5. Why was the shepherd worried? 
6. Did he find out the thief?
ANSWERS
1. The wolf was very hungry so he wandered about in search of food.
2. No, he did not find anything to eat for sometime.
3. The wolf was helpless because
(i) The flock of sheep was guarded by a hound.
(ii) The shepherd's son was also tending the flock vigilantly.
4. He hid in the skin of a sheep and safely went into the flock unchecked.
5. The shepherd was worried because
(i) The number of sheep began to fall every day.
(ii) He could not find out the thief.
6. No, he did not find out the thief.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(ii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     On a hot summer day a fox felt very thirsty. He went about in search of water but could not find water. At last he reached a well. He peeped into it. Unfortunately, he slipped and fell into the well. A goat happened to pass by the well and looked into it. What are you doing here uncle? The cunning fox replied, "Dear niece! I am enjoying a swim down here. It is very pleasant, come down and enjoy yourself too." The goat was also thirsty; she jumped into the well.
QUESTIONS
1. What happened to the thirsty fox? 
2. Who passed by the well just then? 
3. What did the goat do? 
4. What did the goat say to the fox? 
5. What did the fox say in reply? 
6. Why did the goat jump into the well?
ANSWERS
1. The thirsty fox slipped and fell into a well.
2. A goat passed by the well just then.
3. The goat looked into the well.
4. The goat said to the fox, "What are you doing here uncle"?
5. The fox said in reply, "Dear niece, I am enjoying a swim down here. It is very pleasant, come down and enjoy yourself too".
6. The goat jumped into the well because
(i) She was thirsty.
(ii) She was taken in by the cunning fox.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     Once a stag was drinking at a stream. He happened to see his reflection in the water. He was pleased to see his beautiful horns, but when he saw his thin legs he felt sad as he thought they were ugly. Suddenly he saw a pack of hounds at a distance. He ran as fast as his legs could help him. Soon he left the hounds far behind. He had to pass through a thick forest of bushes. His horns got caught in a bush. He tried hard to pull his horns out of it but all in vain. By now the hounds had come up. They fell upon him and tore him to pieces.
QUESTIONS
1. What was the stag doing? 
2. What did he see in the water? 
3. Why was he pleased? 
4. What made him sad? 
5. Why did he run?
6. How did his legs help him?
ANSWERS
1. The stag was drinking water at a stream.
2. He saw his reflection in the water.
3. He was pleased to see his beautiful horns.
4. His thin and ugly legs made him sad.
5. He ran to save his life from a pack of hounds at a distance.
6. His legs helped him to run fast.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iv) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     King Robert Bruce ruled over Scotland. He had been defeated many times by the English. He ran for his life and hid himself in a cave. He had lost all hope to win. As he lay there, thinking if he should give up his struggle or not, he saw a spider trying to reach its cobweb in the ceiling of the cave. It fell down again and again but did not give up its effort. At last, the little insect reached its home in its ninth attempt. This gave courage to King Bruce. He made up his mind to fight and this time he won the battle.
QUESTIONS
1. By whom had Robert Bruce been defeated many times?
2. Where did he hide himself?
3. What did he see in the cave?
4. After how many attempts did the spider succeed?
5. What lesson did King Bruce learn from the spider?
ANSWERS
1. King Robert Bruce had been defeated by the English army many times.
2. He hid himself in a cave.
3. He saw a spider trying to reach its cobweb up in the ceiling of the cave.
4. The spider succeeded after making nine attempts.
5. King Bruce learnt the lesson, "Try, try again till you succeed."
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(v) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. 
     For three years, the master and all his relatives lived in this valley. Many of the Muslims too joined them. All supplies to the valley were cut off. The Makkans saw to it that no food or drink reached the Banu Hashim. The poor Banu Hashim had to live on the leaves and roots of trees and bushes. The condition of children was particularly pitiable. At last, some kind-hearted Makkans took pity on the Banu Hashim. They tore to pieces the agreement hanging in the Kabba. The hunger stricken Banu Hashim were thus able to come back to their homes.
QUESTIONS
1. Who lived for three years in the valley?
2. Who joined the master and his relatives?
3. What did the Makkans do?
4. How did the Banu Hashim live?
5. What was the condition of the children?
6. Who took pity on the Banu Hashim?
ANSWERS
1. The master and all his relatives lived for three years in the valley.
2. Many of the Muslims joined the master and his relatives.
3. The Makkans cut off the supplies of food and drink to the Banu Hashim.
4. The Banu Hashim lived on the leaves and roots of trees and bushes.
5. The condition of the children was very pitiable.
6. Some kind hearted Makkan leaders took pity on the Banu Hashim.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

QUESTION NO. 22
(i) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     We see a kind of milk in tins. It is powdered milk. All the water in this milk has evaporated. When fresh milk stays in a dish for a little time, the thick part of the milk comes to the top. It is the cream of the milk. From this cream people make butter. If milk with the cream on it is made into powder, it is called Full Cream Milk Powder. When something floating is taken off the top of a liquid we say it is skimmed. When the cream is skimmed from the milk, the thin milk that stays is called 'Skim Milk'. Skim milk is a good milk but it has no fat in it. It is not good for very young babies.
QUESTIONS
1. Is the milk in tins powdered or liquid?
2. What becomes of the water in the milk?
3. What comes to the top of the fresh milk when it stays a little in a dish?
4. What does the thick part of the milk has in it?
5. What is cream?
6. What do people make from cream? 
ANSWERS
1. The milk in the tins is powdered.
2. The water in the milk evaporates.
3. The thick part of the milk comes to the top when it stays a little in a dish.
4. The thick part of the milk has fat in it.
5. Cream is the fat of the milk which comes to the top of it.
6. People make butter from cream.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(ii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) was extremely kind-hearted and just to the people. His army had strict orders not to do any harm to the farmers, aged persons, women, children and other civilians. "They are the real strength of society", he said, "They should always be treated with kindness and respect". This was something new for the conquered people, who felt very happy now. The Iranian and Byzantine officers were very hard on them. Harzar Khalid Bin Waleed's (RA) treatment won their hearts so much that they began to hate their old masters.
QUESTIONS
1. How did Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (R.A.) treat the people?
2. What were the orders given to the army?
3. What did he say about the farmers and civilians?
4. How had their former masters treated them?
5. How did Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (R.A.) win the hearts of the conquered people?
6. Why did the people hate their old masters? 
ANSWERS
1. Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (R.A.) was extremely kind-hearted and just to the people.
2. He had ordered his army not to do any harm to the farmers, aged persons, women, children and other civilians.
3. He said about the farmers and civilians, "They are the real strength of society. They should be treated with kindness and respect."
4. Their former masters, the Iranian and Byzantine officers, were very hard on them.
5. Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (R.A.) won the hearts of the conquered people with kindness.
6. The people hated their old masters for their unkind treatment.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     The age of steam has yielded place to the age of electricity. We have harnessed and introduced it into the service of man. The electric telegraph bears our message to and brings us news from all quarters of the world. Submarine cable does its own work all right. Who is not familiar with the electric bell? Who has not used telephone? Who is not enjoying electric light? Electric motors, wireless telegraphy, electric railways, electric modes of construction and destruction all attest to the great power of electricity. Electricity has developed modern industry and has created many industries. It has enabled man to conquer land, sea and air.
QUESTIONS
1. Why do we call the present age the age of electricity? 
2. Which age has yielded place to the age of electricity? 
3. How do we send and receive messages? 
4. State some important uses of electricity? 
5. What do you think is the future of electricity? 
ANSWERS
1. We call the present age the age of electricity as a lot of things are done with the help of electricity.
2. The age of steam has yielded place to the age of electricity.
3. We use telegraph, telephone and wireless to send and receive messages.
4. Railways, factories, mills and communication work with the help of electricity.
5. Electricity promises a bright future for mankind.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iv) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     A man is known by the company he keeps. A good student should avoid the company of those who keep playing all the time. Many students miss their classes and seldom do their homework because some other fellow students do the same. There are hardworking students also who work while others play. They enjoy the games of their choice because they know that playing games is essential for health. A sick student is not so quick in learning his lesson as a healthy one.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of company should a good student keep?
2. Why do some students miss their classes?
3. Why do good students enjoy good health?
4. Why are games necessary for students?
5. Where does the success of a student lie?
ANSWERS
1. A good student should keep good company.
2. Some students miss their classes because some other fellow students do the same.
3. Good students enjoy good health because they work and play at proper time.
4. Games are necessary for students because games keep them healthy and active.
5. The success of a student lies in following a timetable of work and play.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(v) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Newspapers keep us constantly in touch with the whole of mankind. In olden days a man's world consisted of his own village and one or two neighbouring villages. It was difficult for him to know what was going on in other parts of the country. But today the press assisted by rapid means of communication brings us news from the farthest corners of the globe. The press is also responsible for educating public opinion. The laws of a nation are really shaped by its press. In fact, the public receives guidance from the newspapers. Thus their power in modern times is really great.
QUESTIONS
1. What good do the newspapers do to us?
2. Why in olden days man could not know what was going on in far off places?
3. What is the responsibility of the press today?
4. How are the laws of a country shaped nowadays?
5. How are newspapers a source of public guidance?
6. What is your opinion about the power of the press?
ANSWERS
1. Newspapers keep us constantly in touch with the whole of mankind.
2. In olden days man could not know what was going on in far off places for want of means of communication and newspapers.
3. Today the press is responsible for educating public opinion.
4. Newspapers play a great part in shaping the laws of a country.
5. Newspapers are a source of public guidance because newspapers bring the public full information relating to all aspects of the society.
6. Press has great power. It educates public opinion and shapes the laws of a country.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

QUESTION NO. 23
(i) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     About sixty years ago the question of choosing a profession was not taken up seriously. A son generally followed the trade of his father. But nowadays one can take up a trade on likes. The students who make the right choice of profession are always successful. For the right choice of a profession there should be some definite aim. The students who do not have any definite aim suffer a lot in the end as they have also a difficulty in finding an employment. In choosing a profession the teacher and the parents play a very important part. The teacher keeps an eye on his pupils. He studies their habits. So he can put his pupils on the right path of life.
QUESTIONS
1. What were the conditions about the choice of a profession sixty years ago? 
2. Why did the people not choose the profession seriously?
3. Can a student of the present times choose his profession freely?
4. What is the advantage of a right choice of a profession? 
5. How can a student choose his profession rightly? 
6. What will be the difficulty of a student who is studying without a definite aim? 
7. How can a teacher help his pupil in making a choice of profession? 
ANSWERS
1. About sixty years ago, the question of choosing a profession was not taken up seriously.
2. People did not choose the profession seriously because a son generally followed the trade of his father.
3. Yes, a student of the present times can choose his profession freely.
4. The right choice of a profession makes one successful in life.
5. A student can choose a right profession if he has a definite aim in life.
6. A student who is studying without a definite aim would suffer a lot in the end. It would be difficult for him to get en employment.
7. A teacher keeps an eye on his pupils. He studies their habits. So he can put his pupils on the right path of life.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(ii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Making pottery on the potter's wheel is called "throwing". The thrower is a very skillful workman. But there is another method of shaping articles out of clay, -- "moulding". A plaster mould is made and the clay is pressed into it. This is a quicker and less difficult way and must be used to make things like handles; but all the most beautiful pottery is thrown. When a piece of pottery is taken off the wheel, it is put aside to dry, after which a design may be painted on it with special colours that will stand great heat; it is then ready to be fired. This is done in a large oven or kiln. The pieces of pottery are placed in earthenware tubes called "saggers" so that the flames cannot touch the pottery.
QUESTIONS
1. What is throwing? 
2. What is the other method of shaping articles? 
3. What is the advantages of moulding? 
4. How does the porter make designs on the pieces of pottery? 
5. How is pottery baked in fire? 
ANSWERS
1. Making pottery on the potter's wheel is called 'throwing'.
2. The other method of shaping articles out of clay is 'moulding'.
3. Moulding is a quick and easy method of making things like handles.
4. The potter paints designs on the pieces of pottery with special colours.
5. The pottery is baked in a large oven or kiln. The pieces of pottery are placed in earthenware tubes called 'saggers'.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     The Sultan sent agents to all parts of the East to buy rare manuscripts, and bring them back to Cordova. His men were constantly searching the booksellers's shops at Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad for rare volumes for his library. When the book was not to be bought at any price, he would have it copied; and sometimes even hear of a book which was only in the author's mind, and send him a handsome present and beg him to send the first copy to Cordova. By such means he gathered no fewer than four hundred thousand books and this at a time when printing was unknown, and every copy had to be painfully copied in the fine clear hand of the professional copyist.
QUESTIONS
1. Why did Sultan send his agents to all parts of the East? 
2. Where and what for they searched the booksellers's shops? 
3. What would he do when any book was not to be bought at any price? 
4. What would he do when the author had not yet written the book? 
5. How many books had he gathered? 
6. Why was it difficult to collect so many books in those days? 
ANSWERS
1. The Sultan sent agents to all parts of the East to buy rare manuscripts, and bring them back to Cordova.
2. They searched the booksellers's shops at Cairo, Damascus and Baghdad for rare volumes for Sultan's library.
3. When the book was not to be bought at any price, he would have it copied or heard.
4. When the author had not yet written the book and was only in his mind, he would have heard it.
5. He had gathered no fewer than four hundred thousand books.
6. It was difficult to collect so many books in those days because;
(a) Printing was unknown
(b) Every copy had to be painfully copied in the fine clear hand of the professional copyist.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iv) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Musa was in chief command, and the gates were in his charge. They had been barred when the Christians came in view; but Musa threw them open. "Our bodies", he said, "will bar the gates". The young men were kindled by such words, and when he told them, "We have nothing to fight for but the ground we stand on; and without that we are without a home or a country", they were ready to die with him. With such a leader, the Moorish cavaliers performed feats of bravery in the plain which divided the camp from the city.
QUESTIONS
1. Who was the chief commander and what was in his charge? 
2. When were the gates barred? 
3. Who threw them open? 
4. What did Musa say? 
5. What effect had his words on the young men? 
6. What divided the city from the camp?
ANSWERS
1. Musa was the chief commander and the gates were in his charge.
2. The gates were barred when the Christians came in view.
3. Musa threw them open.
4. Musa said, "Our bodies will bar the gates".
5. The young men were kindled by his words. They were ready to die with him.
6. The Moorish cavaliers performed feats of bravery in the plain which divided the city from the camp.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(v) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Early rising is a good habit as it gives us early start of our day's work. We gain time while the late risers are asleep. The early risers have another advantage also and that is that they enjoy good and sound health. Those who are out of bed early have plenty of time to do their work carefully, steadily and completely. They do not have to put off anything to the next day. The early riser is always happy, fresh and smart. He enjoys his work while those who get up late find their duty dull and dry and do it unwillingly. Early rising is therefore, a key to success in life.
QUESTIONS
1. What kind of habit early rising is? 
2. Why can an early riser do more work than the late riser? 
3. Why does an early riser enjoy good health? 
4. Why does a late riser find his work dull and dry?
5. What is the key to success in life?
ANSWERS
1. Early rising is a good habit as it gives us early start of our day's work.
2. An early riser can do more work than the later riser because he gains time while the late riser is asleep. He has plenty of time to do his work carefully, steadily and completely.
3. An early riser enjoys good health because he is always happy, fresh and smart.
4. A late riser finds his work dull and dry because he does his work unwillingly.
5. Early rising is the key to success in life. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

QUESTION NO. 24
(i) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Some ants are social insects. It means that they live in societies., cooperate with one another and do only the work assigned to them. They go out in search of food in an orderly fashion, marching in lines and columns like soldiers. Different groups of social ants have different jobs to do. They manage their affairs through division of labour. Some ants guard and protect their community. They fight the other insects who attack them or raid their colony. They are called soldier ants. Another group gathers food for the whole community. The social ants have not learnt this division of labour. They have inherited it.
QUESTIONS
1. What do you mean by social insects?
2. Why are some ants called social insects?
3. How do the ants cooperate with one another?
4. What principle do they follow while doing their work?
5. Why are the members of a certain group called soldier ants?
6. How have the ants learnt the principle of division of labour?
ANSWERS
1. It means the insects that live in societies, cooperate with one another and do only the work assigned to them.
2. Some ants are called social insects because they live in societies, cooperate with one another and do only the work assigned to them.
3. The ants cooperate with one another through division of labour. For example, some ants protect their community while the others gather food.
4. Division of labour is the principle they follow while doing their work.
5. They are called soldier ants because they guard and protect their community. They fight the other insects who attack them or raid their colony.
6. They have not learnt the principle of division of labour. They have inherited it.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(ii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     Iqbal is not only the greatest poet of our age, but also one of the greatest poets of all times. There are not many poets who wrote as many great poems as he did. He did not write poetry for poetry's sake. He was in fact much more than a mere poet. He was a learned man. He was a great scholar and philosopher. He was a political leader of great importance. But more than anything he was a Muslim who had a great love for Allah and the Rasoolullah (SAW). He wrote poetry to express the great and ever lasting truths of philosophy, history and Islam. He wrote poetry to awaken the Muslims of the whole world from the deep sleep and asked them to unite.
QUESTIONS
1. Why is Iqbal considered to be one of the greatest poets of all times?
2. Did he write poetry for poetry's sake?
3. How can you say that Iqbal was much more than a mere poet?
4. What kind of Muslim was Iqbal?
5. With what aim did he write poetry?
6. What was Iqbal's call to the Muslims of the whole world?
ANSWERS
1. Iqbal is considered to be one the the greatest poets of all times because there are not many poets who wrote as many great poems as he did.
2. No, he did not write poetry for poetry's sake.
3. Iqbal was much more than a mere poet as he was a learned man, a great scholar and philosopher, and a political leader of great importance.
4. Iqbal was a Muslim who had a great love for Allah and the Rasoolullah (SAW).
5. He wrote poetry to awaken the Muslims of the whole world from the deep sleep of ignorance.
6. Iqbal's call to the Muslims of the whole world was to 'be united'.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     One day a girl found a coin. It rolled away before her broom when she was sweeping the yard, and fell with a little clatter against the wall. She ran and picked it up. Someone had dropped it while crossing the yard and perhaps had not even troubled to look for it. It was worth little. But it seemed a whole fortune to her, who never had anything of her own before. She rubbed it clean on the sleeve of her blue cotton jacket and put it into her pocket.
QUESTIONS
1. What did the girl find?
2. When did she find it?
3. How had the coin been there?
4. What was the worth of the coin?
5. Why was it a whole fortune for her?
6. How did she clean it?
7. What did she do after cleaning it?
ANSWERS
1. The girl found a coin.
2. She found it when she was sweeping the yard.
3. Someone had dropped it while crossing the yard and perhaps had not even troubled to look for it.
4. It was worth little.
5. It was a whole fortune for her because she never had anything of her own before.
6. She rubbed it clean on the sleeve of her blue cotton jacket.
7. After cleaning it, she put it into her pocket.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iv) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     In December, 1930 Dr. Muhammad Iqbal was invited to preside over the annual meeting of the All India Muslim League at Allahabad. In his address he openly opposed the idea of power-sharing together of Hindus and Muslims as one nation. He declared that the move to apply one constitution to both the Hindus and Muslims would result in a civil war. He wanted to see the Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa a single state for the Muslims, so that they should live according to the teachings of Islam. We can say that Allama Iqbal was the first thinker to give us the idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India i.e. partition of the Sub-continent into two sovereign states. The Muslims soon realized the importance of the demand for two separate states. It was then the Pakistan Resolution was adopted in 1940.
QUESTIONS
1. Where was the annual meeting of the All India Muslim League held in 1930?
2. Who was invited to preside over the session?
3. What idea did Allama Iqbal oppose?
4. Which provinces did he want to be included in the Muslim state?
5. On what grounds did he demand a separate state for the Muslims of India?
6. When was the Pakistan Resolution moved?
ANSWERS
1. The annual meeting of the All India Muslim League was held at Allahabad in 1930.
2. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal was invited to preside over the session.
3. Allama Iqbal openly opposed the idea of power-sharing together of Hindus and Muslims as one nation.
4. He wanted to be included Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the Muslim state.
5. He demanded a separate state for the Muslims of India so that they could live according to the teachings of Islam.
6. The Pakistan Resolution was moved in 1940.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(v) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 by a liberal English man Mr. A.O. Hume. He had joined the Indian Civil Service in 1849 and retired from service after shouldering different responsibilities. He had been watching the ugly law and order situation, in the country quite frequently. He was of the opinion that the highhanded rule of the Britishers was paving way for any unexpected outburst of violence. His plan was to put a safety valve to minimize the mounting sentiments against the British rule. It was meant to provide an outlet which could ventilate the revolutionary spirit. Mr. Hume put his plan before Lord Duffrin.
QUESTIONS
1. Who founded the Indian National Congress?
2. Who was Mr. A.O. Hume?
3. When was the Indian National Congress founded?
4. Why did Hume think of founding this political organization?
5. With whom did he discuss his plan?
ANSWERS
1. The Indain National Congress was founded by Mr. A.O. Hume.
2. Mr. A.O. Hume was a liberal man. He had joined the Indian Civil Service in 1849 and retired from service after shouldering different responsibilities.
3. The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885.
4. Through this political organization, Hume wanted to put a safety valve to minimize the mounting sentiments against the British rule. It was meant to provide an outlet which could ventilate the revolutionary spirit.
5. He discussed his plan with Lord Duffrin. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

QUESTION NO. 25
(i) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     There was once a man whose doctor gave him medicine which was quite black. His servant who was illiterate made a mistake and poured out a dose of ink in place of the drug. He gave it to his master who drank it. After the patient had taken the dose of ink the servant somehow realized his mistake. He ran back to his master and said, "Sir, I have given you a dose of ink instead of the medicine as both were equally black, what should be done now?" The master replied softly, "Now give me a piece of blotting paper to swallow".
QUESTIONS
1. What was the colour of the medicine?
2. What did the servant give to his master?
3. When did the servant come to know of his mistake?
4. What did the servant do?
5. What did the master say to his servant?
ANSWERS
1. The colour of the medicine was quite black.
2. The servant gave to his master a dose of ink in place of the drug.
3. After the master had taken the dose of ink the servant somehow came to know of his mistake.
4. The servant ran back to his master and said, "Sir, I have given you a dose of ink instead of the medicine as both were equally black, what should be done now?"
5. The master said to his servant, "Now give me a piece of blotting paper to swallow".
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(ii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     There lived a monkey in a forest. One day he was going about in search of food as he was very hungry. At last he entered the house of a farmer. There was no body in the house. The monkey found a hard vessel with a narrow opening. He put his hand into it. It had grains in it. He took a handful of these and tried to pull his hand out but he could not do so with his closed fist. After some time the owner of the house came up. His dog was also with him. The dog fell upon the monkey and tore him to pieces. Thus the monkey met his fate due to his greed.
QUESTIONS
1. Where did the monkey live?
2. Why did he enter the house of a farmer?
3. What did he find there?
4. What was in the vessel?
5. What did the monkey do?
6. Why could he not pull his hand out of the vessel?
7. How did the monkey meet his fate?
ANSWERS
1. The monkey lived in a forest.
2. He entered the house of a farmer in search of food. Moreover, there was no body in the house.
3. He found a hard vessel with a narrow opening.
4. There were grains in the vessel.
5. The monkey put his hand into the vessel.
6. He could not pull his hand out of the vessel because the vessel had narrow opening and his fist was closed.
7. The monkey met his fate due to his greed. The owner's dog fell upon him and tore him to pieces.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iii) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     A tailor ran a shop in a bazaar. An elephant used to go to the river through that bazaar. The tailor gave him a bun everyday. One day the tailor pricked a needle into the trunk of the elephant. The elephant became angry but went away. On return he filled his trunk with muddy water. On reaching the shop of the tailor he put his trunk into it and squirted the dirty water into the shop of the tailor. All the fine and new dresses of his customers were spoiled. He was very sorry for annoying the elephant but it was no use crying over spilt milk.
QUESTIONS
1. Where did the elephant go everyday?
2. What did the tailor give him?
3. What mistake did the tailor make one day?
4. What did the elephant do after drinking water?
5. How did the elephant punish the tailor for his mistake?
6. What is the moral of the story?
ANSWERS
1. The elephant used to go to the river everyday.
2. The tailor gave him a bun everyday.
3. The tailor pricked a needle into the trunk of the elephant one day.
4. After drinking water, the elephant filled his trunk with muddy water.
5. On reaching the shop of the tailor, the elephant put his trunk into it and squirted the dirty water on the fine and new dresses of the tailor's customers.
6. (i) As you sow, so shall you reap
(ii) Tit for tat
(iii) It is useless to cry over spilt milk.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(iv) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     A professional player is quite different from an amateur. His main aim is to make money. He plays the game to earn money or to win a name. On the other hand the amateur player has no such aim. He plays because he gets pleasure in playing. Games not only give him recreation but also physical exercise. He enjoys good health and a sound physique. He plays the game as he should. He observes all the rules and regulations of games. The amateur player plays honestly. He becomes a disciplined gentleman and a responsible citizen. He accepts defeat but does not resort to cheating or other unfair means to win. If he wins a game he feels happy but he is not sad at losing one.
QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by professional player?
2. With what aim does he play games?
3. What makes an amateur player a responsible citizen?
4. What qualities of true sportsmanship does a professional player lack?
5. How does an amateur player differ from a professional player?
6. How does an amateur player take his defeat?
7. Who plays a game for the sake of the game?
ANSWERS
1. A professional players is the person who plays the game to earn money or to win a name.
2. He plays games with the aim to earn money or to win a name.
3. An amateur player observes all the rules and regulations of games. He plays honestly.  These things make him a responsible citizen.
4. A professional player lacks recreation, honesty and discipline.
5. Unlike a professional player, an amateur players plays the game for recreation and not for money. He plays the game as he should. He observes all the rules and regulations of games and plays honestly.
6. An amateur player is not sad at his defeat. He accepts his defeat but does not resort to cheating or other unfair means to win.
7. An amateur players plays a game for the sake of the game.
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar
(v) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
     The camel is rightly called the "ship of the desert". It is the best means of transport in deserts. Camels go slow. But they go on walking for hours on the burning sand and in the blazing sun. Camels carry heavy loads, much heavier in weight than any other beast of burden can. While the other animals' feet sink into the sand, nature has made the feet of camel such that it is not at all difficult for it to walk on sand. The camel is superior to all other animals because it can go without food and drink for days and weeks. It can store food and water. Its hump is also a store of food which the camels use when they get nothing to eat and drink for many days. In deserts only bushes grow here and there and the camel can live on these.
QUESTIONS
1. Why is camel called the ship of the desert?
2. Is it for its speed that it is called the ship of the deserts?
3. What difficulty do the other beasts of burden have to face while walking on the sand?
4. Why does a camel walk easily on the loose sand of the desert?
5. What special quality makes camel superior to other animals used for transport?
6. How does the camel go without food and water for days and weeks?
7. What does the camel generally live on?
ANSWERS
1. The camel is called the ship of the desert because it is the best means of transport in deserts. 
2. No, the camel goes slow. But it goes on walking for hours on the burning sand and in the blazing sun. So it is called the ship of the deserts. 
3. Other beasts of burden have to face two difficulties while walking on the sand;
(a) Their feet sink into the sand
(b) They cannot bear up extreme hunger and thirst
4. Nature has made the feet of camel such that it is not at all difficult for it to walk on the loose sand of the desert.
5. The camel is superior to all other animals of transport because it can go without food and drink for days and weeks.
6. The camel goes without food and water for days and weeks because it stores food in its hump.
7. In deserts only bushes grow here and there and the camel generally lives on these. 
Notes Prepared By: Prof. Shahbaz Asghar

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